Osteoporosis is a common bone disease in adults and even less often in children. Most children tend to suffer from rickets, which develops into osteomalacia in adulthood; the two conditions re characterized by brittle, soft and weak bones due to osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones. Osteoporosis literally leads to abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge. This disorder of the skeleton weakens the bone and results in frequent fractures (breaks) in the bones. Osteopenia is a condition of bone that is slightly less dense than normal bone but not to the degree of bone in osteoporosis.

Sourced from:http://www.medicinenet.com/osteoporosis/article.htm

The bone disorder weakens causing frequent fractures. One of the most affected individuals are pregnant women due to increased Calcium requirements in pregnancy.

It is a silent disease until you experience a fracture. If you are a woman over fifty, chances are you will have osteoporosis in your lifetime. Eight million women (and two million men) have osteoporosis, and an estimated 30 million more people have osteopenia, a milder form of osteoporosis. Two million people per year have low-impact (fragility) fractures of the spine, hip, pelvis and wrist. Many fractures that are caused by osteoporosis can be prevented.

Sourced from: http://www.empoweryourhealth.org/endocrine-conditions/osteoporosis

Apart from the high levels of osteoporosis in pregnant women, it is also a common disorder in menopausal women due to hormonal imbalances in menopause.

While the progressive changes of osteoporosis do not cause painful symptoms, it increases your risk for breaking a bone. According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS), an estimated 50 percent of women and 25 percent of men older than age 50 will experience a broken bone because of osteoporosis. This includes wrist, hip, arm, and leg breaks. The most serious injury is a broken hip, which can severely affect a person’s movement, quality of life, and in certain elderly populations actually carries a high risk of death.

Sourced from: http://www.healthline.com/health/osteoporosis

Osteoporosis will lead to broken hips and other serious injuries. The following is a comprehensive list of the symptoms of osteoporosis;

There typically are no symptoms in the early stages of bone loss. However, once bones have been weakened by osteoporosis, you may have signs and symptoms that include:

  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected

Sourced from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/basics/symptoms/con-20019924



Osteoporosis leads to symptoms such as a stooped posture due to weakened bones. Some people are more susceptible to the disease compared to other people in the population due to the following risk factors;

  • having already experienced menopause
  • family history of osteoporosis
  • female gender, especially females of Caucasian or Asian origin
  • history of age-related height loss
  • history of broken bones
  • history of hormone-related medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism and Cushing’s disease
  • history of osteopenia
  • low body mass
  • age older than 50

Risk factors that are within your control include:

  • excess alcohol consumption
  • excess amounts of caffeine, protein and sodium in your diet
  • lack of calcium and vitamin D in your daily diet
  • lack of fruits and vegetables in your daily diet
  • lack of regular physical activity
  • long-term use of certain medications, including anticonvulsants and glucocorticoids
  • smoking/tobacco use

Sourced from: http://www.healthline.com/health/osteoporosis

Risk factors such as menopause, lack of Calcium and Vitamin D in your diet will increase the chances of suffering from osteoporosis. However, there is hope in form of treatments available to osteoporosis patients.

If you have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, are at high risk for fractures or have suffered a low-trauma fracture, you should begin treatment. In addition to exercise, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, you may also require one or more of the following medications:

  • Bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zolondronic acid) Bisphosphonates slow down excessive bone activity, stabilize BMD (bone mineral density) and reduce fracture risk

  • Calcitonin Calcitonin slows down excessive bone activity and reduces fracture risk in the spine, but not clearly in other bones such as the hip. It can also reduce pain from acute spinal fractures. Recent reports suggest that long-term use of the drug may lead to tumor growth.

  • Estrogen Estrogen reduces fracture risk, but when the estrogen is discontinued, bone loss accelerates somewhat like what happens in menopause.

  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator or SERM (raloxifene) this medication reduces spine fractures and may have beneficial effects on other tissues. Reduction of fracture risk in other bones like hip is uncertain.

  • Tariparitide Tariparitide builds new bone and may be particularly helpful in people with very low bone mass, fracture while on other forms of therapy, or very poor ability to form new bone.

  • Denosumab Denosumab does not directly affect the bone, but decreases the activity of cells that cause too much bone to be removed. It may be helpful in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of treatment such as the bisphosphonates.

NOTE: Some of these drugs, if used for too long, may result in fragile bone (jaw and hip) that can fracture and, in the jaw, decay. Check with your doctor about when to discontinue these medications.

Sourced from: http://www.empoweryourhealth.org/endocrine-conditions/osteoporosis

Epilepsy is a neurological disease that results from mainly head injuries that may interrupt oxygen reaching into the brain for long periods leading to damages of some lobes. The types of seizures in epileptic patient vary widely depending on the patient and the part of the brain affected.

There are many types of seizures, depending primarily on what part of the brain is involved. The term epilepsy says nothing about the kind of seizure or cause of the seizure, only that the seizures happen repeatedly. A stricter definition of the term requires that the seizures have no known underlying cause. This may also be called primary or idiopathic epilepsy.

  • Episodes of abnormal electrical activity within the brain result in seizures.
  • The specific area of the brain affected by the abnormal electrical activity may result in a particular type of seizure.
  • If all areas of the brain are affected by the abnormal electrical activity, a generalized seizure may result. This means that consciousness is lost or impaired. Often all the person’s arms and legs stiffen and then jerk rhythmically.
  • One seizure type may evolve into another during the seizure. For example, a seizure may start as a partial, or focal, seizure, involving the face or arm. Then the muscular activity spreads to other areas of the body. In this way, the seizure becomes generalized.
  • Seizures caused by high fevers in children are not considered epilepsy. Also, see children’s seizures.

Sourced from:http://www.emedicinehealth.com/epilepsy/article_em.htm

The type of seizure in an epileptic patient is dependent on the part of the brain affected. There are two main types of seizures; generalized, focal, and, absence of seizures. In each of these seizures, the patient exhibits characteristic symptoms as well as some common symptoms.

While many types of repetitive behavior may represent a neurological problem, a doctor needs to establish whether they are seizures.

1.Generalized seizures:
All areas of the brain (the cortex) are involved in a generalized seizure. Sometimes these are referred to as grand mal seizures.

  • The person experiencing such a seizure may cry out or make some sound, stiffen for several seconds to a minute and then have rhythmic movements of the arms and legs. Often the rhythmic movements slow before stopping.
  • Eyes are generally open.
  • The person may appear not to be breathing and actually turn blue. This may be followed by a period of deep, noisy breathes.
  • The return to consciousness is gradual, and the person may be confused for quite some time — minutes to hours.
  • Loss of urine is common.
  • The person will frequently be confused after a generalized seizure.

2.Partial or focal seizures:
Only part of the brain is involved, so only part of the body is affected. Depending on the part of the brain having abnormal electrical activity, symptoms may vary.

  • If the part of the brain controlling movement of the hand is involved, then only the hand may show rhythmic or jerky movements.
  • If other areas of the brain are involved, symptoms might include strange sensations like a full feeling in the stomach or small repetitive movements such as picking at one’s clothes or smacking of the lips.
  • Sometimes the person with a partial seizure appears dazed or confused. This may represent a complex partial seizure. The term complex is used by doctors to describe a person who is between being fully alert and unconscious.

3.Absence or petit mal seizures:
These are most common in childhood.

  • Impairment of consciousness is present with the person often staring blankly.
  • Repetitive blinking or other small movements may be present.
  • Typically, these seizures are brief, lasting only seconds. Some people may have many of these in a day

Sourced from: http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/


Epileptic individuals will be a state of confusion after their seizures especially generalized seizures. This confusion and loss of consciousness will lead to some accidents and health complications; in a small of a greater scale.

  • Falling If you fall during a seizure, you can injure your head or break a bone.
  • Drowning If you have epilepsy, you are 15 to 19 times more likely to drown while swimming or bathing than the rest of the population because of the possibility of having a seizure while in the water.
  • Car accidents A seizure that causes either loss of awareness or control can be dangerous if you are driving a car or operating other equipment.
  • Many states have driver’s license restrictions related to your ability to control seizures and impose a minimum amount of time that you have been seizure-free, ranging from months to years, before you are allowed to drive.
  • Pregnancy complications Seizures during pregnancy pose dangers to both mother and baby, and certain anti-epileptic medications increase the risk of birth defects. If you have epilepsy, and you are considering becoming pregnant, talk to your doctor as you plan your pregnancy.
    Most women with epilepsy can become pregnant and have a healthy baby. You will need to be carefully monitored throughout pregnancy, and medications may need to be adjusted. It is imperative that you work with your doctor to plan your pregnancy.
  • Emotional health issues People with epilepsy are more likely to have psychological problems, especially depression, anxiety and, in extreme cases, suicide. Problems may be a result of difficulties dealing with the condition itself as well as medication side effects.

Other life-threatening complications of epilepsy are uncommon, but may happen, such as:

  • Status epilepticus.This condition occurs if you are in a state of continuous seizure activity lasting more than five minutes, or if you have frequent recurrent seizures without regaining full consciousness in between them. People with status epilepticus have an increased risk of permanent brain damage and death.
  • Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). People with epilepsy also have a small risk of sudden unexplained death. The cause is unknown, but some research shows it may occur due to heart or respiratory conditions.

Sourced from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epilepsy/symptoms-causes/dxc-20117207

Diabetes is a worldwide menace especially due to the ever-changing lifestyles in the modern world. The disease impacts an enormous cost on the economy annually due to the numbers of patients that need constant check up.

From an economic perspective, the total annual cost of diabetes in 2012 was estimated to be 245 billion dollars in the United States. This included 116 billion in direct medical costs (healthcare costs) for people with diabetes and another 69 billion in other costs due to disability, premature death, or work loss.

Sourced from: http://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_mellitus/page2.htm

Diabetes is such a menace that in the year 2012 alone, it was estimated that about 245 billion dollars were used to cater for medical costs within the United States. There three main types of diabetes; type 1/ juvenile diabetes, type 2/ diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes.

1) Type 1 Diabetes

The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.

Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.

Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under the 20s in the USA rose 23%, according to SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)


2) Type 2 Diabetes

The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).

Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercises, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease – it gradually gets worse -, and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.
Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy body weight. People with a lot of visceral fats, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk. Being overweight/obese causes the body to release chemicals that can destabilize the body’s cardiovascular and metabolic systems.

3) Gestational diabetes

This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy.

The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be.

Sourced from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/

Diabetes deteriorates without any treatment; for example, gestational diabetes may develop into full-blown type 2 without proper control and treatment. Therefore, it is best to get a diagnosis as early s possible by utilizing one of these methods;

Being diagnosed begins with one of three tests. In most cases, your doctor will want to repeat a test that is high to confirm the diagnosis:

  • A fasting glucose test is a test of your blood sugar levels taken in the morning before you have eaten. A level of 126 mg/dL or higher may mean that you have diabetes.
  • An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) entails drinking a beverage containing glucose and then having your blood glucose levels checked every 30 to 60 minutes for up to 3 hours. If the glucose level is 200 mg/dL or higher at 2 hours, then you might have diabetes.
  • The A1c test is a simple blood test that shows your average blood sugar levels for the past 2-3 months. An A1c level of 6.5% or higher may mean you have diabetes.
  • Your doctor may also suggest a zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test. This blood test — along with other information and test results — can help determine if a person has type 1 diabetes instead of another type. The goal of having the ZnT8Ab test is a prompt and accurate diagnosis, and that can lead to timely treatment

Sourced from: http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/understanding-diabetes-detection-treatment